Kingston Standardized Cognitive Assessment – Revised (KSCAr)
The Kingston Standardized Cognitive Assessment-Revised (KSCAr) is an instrument designed to assess elderly individuals suspected of suffering from dementias. The KSCAr is a broad range screen that can assess a number of cognitive capabilities but concentrates on those commonly impaired in dementia. It assesses memory, language and visual-motor functions – yielding a percentile score for each, as well as an overall total score.
Individuals can be compared to groups of outpatients with progressive dementias (Alzheimer and Other Dementia) as well as a community dwelling normal elderly sample. Norms are also provided for a group of out-patients who were diagnosed with depression, but not dementia. While it is not diagnostic, the KSCAr alerts the user to the possibility of a dementing illness and raises the question of whether further evaluation is needed.
The KSCAr is a valuable tool as it provides an exceptionally comprehensive screening in about 30 minutes or less without requiring specially trained personnel. The psychometric properties of the KSCAr have recently been published (Hopkins R, Kilik L, Day D, Rows C, Hamilton P. 2004. The Revised Kingston Standardized Cognitive Assessment. Int J Geriatric Psychiatry 19(4):320-326.)
Both the KSCAr and Brief KSCA have been translated into French (L’Évaluation Cognitive Standardisée de Kingston – Revisée). However, separate normative data are as yet unavailable. Clinicians are urged to use caution when applying the English norms, and those interested are invited to share any data with the authors.
The Brief Kingston Standardized Cognitive Assessment (BKSCA) is an instrument that has been designed to quickly screen elderly individuals suspected of having progressive dementias. It can assess a number of cognitive capabilities, concentrating on those commonly impaired in dementia, especially in the early stages.
Individuals can be compared to groups of outpatients with Alzheimer’s or other dementias, as well as to a community dwelling normal elderly sample. A group of outpatients with depression, but without dementia, is also included. The BriefKSCA can be used for follow-up assessments after an initial (full) KSCAr has been administered.
One of the main values of the BKSCA is that it provides a comprehensive screening in 15 minutes or less without special training or specially trained personnel.
Hopkins R, Kilik L, Day D, Rows C, Hamilton P. (2005) The Brief Kingston Standardized Cognitive Assessment -Revised. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 20, 227-231.
Mini-Kingston Standardized Cognitive Assessment (mini-KSCAr)
The Mini-Kingston Standardized Cognitive Assessment (mini-KSCAr) is an instrument that has been designed as an initial screen to rapidly assess elderly individuals suspected of having a progressive dementia. It primarily focuses on the assessment of those symptoms commonly found in the early stages of dementia; i.e. memory problems (orientation, immediate and delayed recall, and recognition), executive functioning (abstract thinking), and motor spatial abilities (clock drawing).
Individuals can be compared to groups of outpatients with Alzheimer’s or other dementias, as well as to a community dwelling normal elderly sample. A group of outpatients with depression, but without dementia, is also included. The mini-KSCAr can also be used for follow-up assessments after an initial full KSCAr has been administered.
One of the main values of the mini-KSCAr is that it provides a more comprehensive and reliable screening in a period of time comparable to that one would take to complete a MoCA or MMSE, all without special training or specially trained personnel. It is, therefore, of particular interest to primary care physicians who routinely have to quickly assess elderly patients for signs of dementia. It should be noted, that the “Assessment Form” for the mini-KSCAr is very much shorter than the other KSCAr’s.
Another important use for the mini-KSCAr is in research to screen out subjects that may be suffering from dementia or other neurological diseases.
Hopkins, RW, Kilik, LA. (2013) “The mini-Kingston Standardized Cognitive Assessment” The American Journal of
Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias, 28, 239-244. (Originally published online Mar 28, 2013)
Kingston Dementia Rating Scale (KDRS)
The Kingston Dementia Rating Scale is a scale for use primarily with dementia patients in a long term care setting; usually with advanced dementia.
It is a 21 item scale that can be repeatedly administered by staff to establish baselines and measure change. The scale assesses both behaviour and orientation. It typically can be administered in 5 to 10 minutes.
Pelletier, F., Hopkins, R.W. and Hamilton, P. (1991) “Kingston Dementia Rating Scale” – International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 6, 227-233.